atDNA Compare Tests Haplogroups
Taiwan Austronesia DNA Markers

Austronesian Expansion Workpaper

Findings to date

My Southeast Asian in-depth origin have been revealed through mtDNA Full Sequence Analysis and three Y-chromosome based tests.

1. With a 95% level of confidnece my most recent common male genetic common ancestor lived in Southeast Asia some 2700 years ago.
2. My present genetic marker is among those of the Out of Taiwan peopling of Southeast Asia.
3. Male populations with whom I share DNA exist from east to west in the countries of Myanmar to Taiwan, and the Philippines, and southward from China to Malaysia and Indonesia.


As for my goal of a haplogroup portrayal of my ancestral clans path into the present millennia, my research pursues a paternal clan marker beyond the autosomal findings. For such I rely on the Y Full Panel search by the YSEQ lab in Berlin, Germany and on Next Generation Sequencing by two labs -- the Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) lab in Houston, Texas which conducted Y-chromosome test known as Big Y and and Whole Genome Sequencing by Nebula Genomics in San Francisco, California.

These testing strategies advanced the detection of the paternal genetic marker sequence from O-P164 to uncover markers for ancestors who lived more recently, such as these two markers with dates of my most recent ancestors who lived during the Neolithic Period (early agriculture) and into the present Holocene epoch. In timeline order these markers date from my common ancestors by their branch living ~13,800 years ago in Branch O-F996 also known as F871

Figure 24
My Genetic Marker O-F996/F871
~13,800 to ~11,600 Years Ago

Thereafter, ~12,200 years ago in Branch O-F706 also known as F1903, paternal population bearing this marker cover a wide swath of Southeast Asia, as confirmed by FTDNA reference population groups in Cambodia, China, and the Philippines.

Figure 25
My Genetic Markers
by YFull Y Chart 16 January 2020

These markers refer back to having originated in geographical locations in present day mainland China and lend support to Harvard Scientist, Mark Lipson, findings of a genetic tracer dye for the Austronesian expansion ancestry present in peoples who today speak Austronesian languages. To quote a recent study, which supports the out of Tawain theory: The origin of Austronesian has always been a controversial subject in linguistics and other related fields. The Express Train Hypothesis, a well accepted linguistic theory on the origin of Austronesian postulates that proto-Austronesians originated in Taiwan and began to expand southward about 5,000–6,000 years ago by way of the Philippines and Eastern Indonesia. Moreover Lipson finds nearly all people who speak such languages have some ancestry closer to aboriginal Taiwanese than to mainland East Asian population.

Studies suggest by ~7,000 years ago a viable cultural mileu fisherman-farmers existed on the south coast of China and in the waters in the Straits of Taiwan from boats with hooks and nets. Around 5,000 years ago these fishermen-farmers crossed the 92 miles of the Straits and settled on Taiwan. They were not the Sino-Tibetan speaking Han Chinese but speakers of an Austronesian language closely related to the Tai-Kadai language family that is the dominant language group today in Laos, Thailand and the north and east of Burma. Once established on Taiwan, the Austronesian speaking fishermen-farmers quickly embarked on extensive colonizations in human history known as the Austronesian expansion.

In addition to linguistics, this scenarios is supported by Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia. As early as 4,500 years ago, a group of Austronesian speakers from Taiwan would have ventured to northern Luzon in the Philippines and settled there. The archaeological record from the Cagayan Valley in northern Luzon shows that they brought with them the same set of stone tools and pottery they had in Taiwan. The descendants of this group spread their language and culture through the Indo-Malayan archipelago west and east into the central Pacific Ocean.

Likely, this scenario could apply to my ancestors in Branch O-A16139 as late as ~2,700 years ago and more recently to those who live in the present millennium. Documentation for these markers can be viewed in the International Society of Genetic Genealogists (ISOGG), haplogroup O chart of 18 April 2020 and by the YFull chart timeline in Table 10.

Table 10
My Genetic Marker O-A16139
by YFull Y Chart 16 January 2020

The chart, based on the results of my FTDNA Big Y-test, puts the origin of my ancestor with the marker O-A16139 to be as recent as sometime around the year 700 BCE with a level of 95% confidence, just some 2,700 years ago.

As for the relationship of my ancestor with that marker and the peopling of the islands of Southeast Asia emanating from Taiwan, all that can be concluded is summed up in one study, which points out, through analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosomal DNA, there exists a genetic affinity between indigenous Taiwanese and the populations of Southeast Asia. These populations bear my most recent markers both on the mainland and the islands of Southeast Asia.

So, much of my goal has been achieved of portraying my paternal haplogroup clan's ancestral path into the second millennium of the common era. It began on the Asian mainland ~30,000 years ago and I suspect presently falls within the geographical area in Figure 24.

Figure 26
Out of Taiwan Austronesian Southeast Asia Expansion

Austronesia Area Map

For the moment, beyond tracing ancestral geographical origins, my thoughts on learning the path of my paternal ancestry in the present millennia are best expressed by the words of Roberta Estes about her DNA research for a paternal ancestor, "If I’m incredibly lucky, maybe there will be a family line SNP (Novel Unnamed Variant) and it won’t just narrow the line, it will give me a long-awaited answer by genetically announcing which line was his."


CLICK or email me at: herbert@herbertholeman.com