atDNA Compare Tests Haplogroups
Taiwan Austronesia DNA Markers

Y-DNA Tests Workpaper

Findings to date

My paternal-line reveals ancestral roots and genetic ancestors with --

1. roots beginning in mainland Asia ~29,400 years ago from the predominant China sub-group.
2. As of ~12,000 years ago, my father-line ancestors reached the southeast China coast and/or the island of Taiwan.
3. My paternal haplogroup O is almost nonexistent in Western Siberia, Western Asia, Europe, and Africa and is absent from the Americas.


My Y-DNA is the DNA in my Y chromosome and is patrilineal. Only men inherit the Y chromosome. My father inherited his Y chromosome from his father, who inherited it from his father who inherited it from his father and so on ad infinitum. The Y chromosome allows males to trace their family back through male ancestors as the Y chromosome is passed down from father to son basically unchanged through generations other than for random mutations. These random mutations, called markers happen naturally and are usually harmless. But, once the markers have been identified, geneticists can go back in time and trace them to the point at which they first occur. People who share the same mutation share a common ancestor and belong to what is called a haplogroup. As an example, scientists found the mutation of the Y chromosome that spread very rapidly across Asia about 1,000 years ago. Nearly 16 million men, almost eight percent of the male population in the region have Y chromosomes that are nearly identical. The men are living in the same region as the formal Mongol Empire. The genetic evidence and the historical records that describe the Mongol invasion, suggests that the 16 million men are descended from Genghis Khan and his male relatives.

So, I used Y-DNA testing to trace my direct patrilineal line. This is something I cannot do with autosomal DNA. Unlike my autosomal DNA, my Y-DNA is all male with no female genetic contribution.

Through Y-DNA testing, I am tracing my unique male inheritance path to other males beginning with the first generation of my male ancestry. The Y-DNA lens allows me to view intact copies of Y-DNA that each generation of fathers pass on intact to their sons.

Through my haplogroup, I will learn the ancient origins of my direct paternal line with an in-depth view of my Stone Age paternal ancestry. This includes discovering if two men in my patrilineal line have the same genetic marker. This would mean they both have an ancestor who was the first to have that marker and who passed the marker on to them, thus, forming a genetic ancestral relationship. Additionally, these markers reveal the when and where of my paternal genetic line.

I tested to identify my genetic markers with the companies, YSEQ and Family Tree DNA

Figure 19
My Paternal Tree
Using Y-DNA Genetic Markers

Haplogroup O Map

My paternal genetic ancestry is the haplogroup O. Its defining genetic marker O-M175, originated ~35,000 years ago as the base of my ancestral tree in Figure 19. The marker O-M175 is mostly present among male populations in East and Southeast Asia and associated with the Chinese people and the Han Chinese lineage. Also, its DNA markers to the family of Sino-Austronesian languages.

Dominating the East Asian Y chromosome gene pool, the marker O-M175 accounts for 75% of the entire paternal lineages of Chinese. Yet, it is almost nonexistent in Western Siberia, Western Asia, Europe, and Africa and is absent from the Americas.

About 29,400 years ago the man in my paternal O-M175 lineage experienced a genetic variation. This experience resulted in his offspring gaining a genetic trait he didn't have, which was a new genetic marker. His progeny had formed the marker O-M122. The progeny with the O-M122 marker thus becomes known by the acronym Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA). That is to say, he became the most recent man from which all the men in the O-M122 haplogroup branch are direct descendents.

The O-M122 marker is the main sublineage of O-M175 and is the predominant sub-group in China. It exists at high levels amongst Han Chinese, Tibeto-Burman populations and many of those populations in Yunnan, Tibet, Myanmar, Northeast India, and Nepal, Manchu, Mongolia, Korea, Vietnam, Malay, Philippines, Thailand, etc.

Figure 20
Southeast Asia Area
of My Y-DNA Genetic Markers


CLICK to email me at: herbert@herbertholeman.com