ANCESTRAL MIGRATION
Through Autosomal and Y-DNA Tests

With identification of the O-P164 marker in my genome, matching it to a specific marker geographically can be problomatic. For south and far east Asian testers DNA population reference data sets have been relatively small as most of the major DNA testing labs were located in the West. As such, their focus was European-based ancestry as it addressed their customer based. However, the rise of such testing labs as X-Code located in India, gives focus on South Asia and Wegene and Zuyuan located in China give focus to their East/Southeast Asia populations.

That said, the the world's largest Y Haplotree containing 160,000 confirmed markers from the FTDNA Y-DNA database reports Taiwan for the existance of the O-P164 marker.

Figure 10
Fugian - Taiwan Migration


The Wegene lab ancestral findings for me matched with the DNA of populations living in the geographical area of present day Taiwan and the Southern Han living some 81 miles across the waters of the Taiwan Straits in mainland Fujian. These findings are presented in Tables 2 and 3.

Table 2
My Asian Ancestry
WeGene Lab

Ancestry

As reported in Table 2, my ethnic Chinese admixture is 41.37% ethnic Chinese of which is 21.36% is specifically, that of the indigenous Amis and Atayal people. It is estimated about 85% of Taiwanese people might have some genetic markers of the indigenous tribes.

Figure 11
Taiwan Reference Population
Area used by WeGene Lab

Ancestry

Additionally, Table 2 shows 13.49% of my admixture is Southern Han, which are dominant in Taiwan. The Chinese Han migration into Taiwan began in the 17th century and presently constitute more than 90% of China's population and 20% of the global population as discussed in this video.

Table 3
Asian Ancestry
DNA Land Lab

Ancestry

Similarly, my ancestry composition in Table 3 reports my East Asian ancesty as 44% of which 37% is Southeast Asian and 22% is Taiwanese. The O-P164 branch is predominant in paternal lineages of Taiwan’s Amis/Atayal population, the unassimilated, highland-dwelling aborigines of Taiwan who are linguistically related to the Austronesian-speaking ethnic groups of the Philippines and, more broadly, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Southeast Asia (SEA) islanders. But, in other areas of Asia and Oceana the marker is no more than 4%.

Taiwan itself during the period of my genetic ancestors was part of the mainland of present day China. The theory is the Taiwan’s Gaoshan indigenous people originated from one branch of the ancient Yue ethnic group living during the Stone Age along the eastern edge of the mainland connecting with the then Sundaland, which at the time was above sea level. But, with the retreat of the glaciers accompanied by climate change and the rising sea level, present day Taiwan and the islands of Southeast Asia would become isolated from the mainland.

Yet, DNA gene flow for several millennia would occur from the mainland to Taiwan around 100 miles distant, and from Taiwan to the Southeast Asia islands. Taiwan's southern tip is ~300 miles from the northern tip of the Philippines, and within easy reach of Malaysia to the south. Even farming-voyaging immigrants sailed from Taiwan to the Japanese Yaeyama islands 160 miles to the north from which on clear days, the silhouette of Taiwan in the distance can be seen.

Migrations into Taiwan from neighboring islands some 500 miles across the water have occurred as well within the last 10,000 years from the Visayas in the southernmost islands of Luzon, and the northern and eastern coastal parts of Mindanao in the Philippines. A modern day study sample of the Philippines as recent 1900, shows an almost pure composition, very close to the modern Taiwanese South Island Gaoshan people such as the Amis and Atayal.

In any case, the autosomal test findings from eight DNA labs identified an O-P164 MRCA, the so-called most recent common ancestor from which all the men with the P164 marker are directly descended Of course all this relies on testing company current population sampling reference groups. For example, the Wegene DNA lab is located in China with an extensive Asian reference population database. WeGene's analytical algorithm uses machine learning and is based on the Admixture ancestor analysis tool developed by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The algorithm compares testor's autosomal DNA information with reference populations in the their database, and quantifies the similarities.

In contrast, the DNA lab, 23andMe is based in the United States and has an extensive Eurocentric database but a relatively small and limited to some Asian reference populations.

Still, as Figure 12 shows, testing companies are continuously refining their estimations of ancestry by expanding their reference population databases.

Figure 12
Size of DNA Labs Reference Populations

Ancestry

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Beyond reference population size, my autosomal tests do not mean I have tested for all of the available markers that may lead to ancestors who lived closer to present times. So as a way of continuing my marker search beyond the autosomal findings for paternal ancestors, I relied on two types of Y-chromosome tests: The Y Full Panel search by the YSEQ lab in Berlin, Germany and the Big Y 500 deep ancestry test, which uses Next Generation Sequencing by the Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) lab in Houston, Texas sequences some 12 million base pairs of the male Y chromosome to detect DNA markers.

These testing strategies advanced the detection of the genetic marker sequence from O-P164 to uncover markers for ancestors who lived more recently, such as these two markers with dates of my most recent ancestor:

O-F996 also known as F871 13,800 years ago

O-F706 also known as F1903 12,200 years ago

Both of these markers refer to a geographical locations in China as shown in Figure 10. Populations bearing the O-706 marker have been confirmed by FTDNA reference population groups in Cambodia, China, and the Philippines. Continued searching beyond these markers, the FTDNA Big Y-500 test uncovered two additional markers with dates of more recent ancestors:

O-AM01861 also known as AM01750 4700 years ago

O-A16139 3600 years ago and also related to A16427 possibly as recent as ~2100 years ago

These markers can be viewed in the International Society of Genetic Genealogists (ISOGG), haplogroup O chart of May, 2018 shown in Table 4.

Table 4
My Genetic Markers
Y Haplogroup O

Based on the FTDNA Big Y test, it could be surmised the Taiwanese migrations provide more recent paternal ancestry within a broad geographical area of Southeast Asia. It extends from Myanmar (Borneo) east to Taiwan and the Philippines. And, it extends from China south to Malaysia and Indonesia.

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