Some 28,400 years ago, my ancestor made another change in his migratory path and as a result a change in his sub lineage to form O2a (O-M122). With the Northern Ice Cap ever extending south, the global cooling drove both animals and man southward. My nomadic ancestors being hunters and gathers, would have followed the game animals.
They mave gone the way of the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River. In a region
known as Anhui, the Yangtze River finds its way through south Anhui in between two mountainous
regions, thus leading to a pathway south. Of course, my ancestors would not be among the first
there. On their arrival, they would find people had long lived there as there is ample evidence
modern humans lived as far as southern China at least as early as 80,000 years ago. Below the mountain
ranges, savanna woodland and grassland were extensive during most of the glacial period.
My ancestors would have adapted to the change in environment in the vast low-lying area known as Sundaland. Doubtless they would have settled on the broad riverine flood plains and integrated with the existing communities. In this regard, my sub lineage (O-M122) is primarily associated with the Chinese people and the main Han Chinese lineage. But, the lineage has a sizeable presence elsewhere in Southeastern Asia.
It is a significant component of most modern East Asian populations and contributes to their diversity. It dominates paternal lineages and occurs at a very high frequency rate of 44.3% among East Asian populations. In the order of its size in a country's population, the sub lineage O-M122 is present in large numbers in China, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, Myanmar, and Laos in that order. It contributes less in Austronesian populations elsewhere.
The frequency and diversity in the population settlement history of the islands of Southeast Asia is
depicted in these images. Note the darkened areas represent greater areas of concentration.
In the image below, arrows symbolize dispersals and gene flow, and migrations in years ago. The age at the beginning
of arrows represents the likely time of origin of the sub lineage O-M122, and arrow colors represent time of
dispersal. Red is for Paleolithic and yellow for contemporary historical times, which flow through Taiwan farther